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There are over 800 living species of cephalopods, loosely divided into two groups called clades… Die Cephalopoda. The male transfers a sperm packet to the female through her mantle opening via either a penis or a modified arm; the females are polyandrous, meaning they can be fertilized by multiple males. So the class Cephalopoda systematically can be divided into Tetrabranchiata (= Nautiloidea, four gilled cephalopods, the ancient group) and Dibranchiata (= Coleoidea, two gilled cephalopods, the modern group). Some juvenile cephalopods swim freely and feed on "marine snow" (bits of food fragments in the water column) until they mature, while others are adept predators at birth. Cephalopods are intelligent, with relatively large brains. Many cephalopods, especially octopuses, are intelligent problem solvers and escape artists. 1966. The clade (phylum) Mollusca is normally divided into seven smaller clades (classes) of very unequal importance; the most important class of living molluscs is the Gastropoda comprising more than 80% of all living mollusc species. Cephalopods were once one of the dominant marine animals but today there are only about 700 living species. By using ThoughtCo, you accept our, Meet the Vampire Squid from Hell (Vampyroteuthis infernalis), All About Grimpoteuthis, the Dumbo Octopus, Blue Shark Facts: Size, Habitat, Reproduction, Crustaceans: Species, Characteristics, and Diet, Swimming Dynamics and Propulsive Efficiency of Squids Throughout Ontogeny, The Cephalopoda: Squids, octopuses, nautilus, and ammonites. P.J. In many species, males and females both die shortly after spawning. The list is divided between references with either Global or Regional coverage. Early specialists divided the living cephalopods into Octopoda and Decapoda without relation to their internal structure; these were both placed in the Dibranchia, in contrast to all fossil forms, which were considered as Tetrabranchia because Nautilus has four gills rather than two. Class Cephalopoda Cephalopods are marine animals and it can be found in oceans all around the world. • Some gastropods lack a shell, but most are known only by their Comprising more than 800 extant species, the class Cephalopoda (octopuses, squid, cuttlefish, and nautiluses) is a fascinating group of marine conchiferan mollusks. Cephalopods reproduce rapidly and over-fishing is not typically a problem. Order Octopoda. Schneider, 1784Highly specialized marine molluscs divided into two distinctive subclasses, the shelled subclass Nautiloidea and the subclass Coleoidea, in which the shell is reduced and internal or lacking entirely. Selected Cephalopod Species. Monogr., 35(1): 863 pp; (2): 357 pp. Piglet Squid, Heliocranchia sp. Cephalopoda means "head foot" and this group has the most complex brain of any invertebrate. Traveling head first, they move by jet propulsion: muscles fill their mantle with water and then expel it in a burst that propels them forward. The following is a list of cephalopod species guides or guides that include cephalopods (listed by Author). They have three hearts that circulate blue blood—cephalopod blood is copper-based, rather than iron-based like red-blooded humans. • This class contains several poisonous species. Gestation periods can last for months, depending on species and conditions: one deep-sea octopus, Graneledone boreopacifica, has a gestation period of four and a half years. Cephalopods are found in all of the major water bodies in the world, primarily but not exclusively salt water. M.S., Resource Administration and Management, University of New Hampshire, B.S., Natural Resources, Cornell University. 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