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In medieval Europe, care for orphans tended to reside with the Church. [107] The most recent figure provided seems implausibly low for a country with a total population of 1.2 billion. M, Juffer, F. IQ of Children Growing Up in Children's Homes: A Meta-Analysis on IQ Delays in Orphanages. In addition, there is a vast number of privately run orphanages running into thousands spread across the country. No Title. [91], "At Kabul's two main orphanages, Alauddin and Tahia Maskan, the number of children enrolled has increased almost 80 percent since last January[when? The Foundling Hospital was founded in 1741 by the philanthropic sea captain Thomas Coram in London, England, as a children's home for the "education and maintenance of exposed and deserted young children." Orphanages operated by the state are generally known as juvenile homes. Out of this total number, about 1.8  million are orphaned by HIV/AIDS. Many of these countries, such as the United States, utilize a system of monetary stipends paid to foster parents to incentivize and subsidize the care of state wards in private homes. Evidence from a variety of studies supports the vital importance of attachment security and later development of children. PhDessay is an educational resource where over 1,000,000 free essays are collected. Their researchers concluded that institutional care in America in the 20th century produced the same health, emotional, intellectual, mental, and physical outcomes as care by relatives, and better than care in the homes of strangers. "Other families" by Amany Abdel-Moneim. Also, the term "children's home" became more common for those still existing. Furthermore, orphans in developing nations are seen as a problem that needs to be solved, this also makes them vulnerable to exploitation or neglect. In the post-Soviet countries, orphanages are better known as "children's homes" (Детскиe домa). From about two thousand in 2012 to about two hundred in 2016. As soon as they were old enough, children were often given as apprentices to households to ensure their support and to learn an occupation. Orphaned children are now protected by social services. "Dar Al-Mu'assassa Al-Iwaa'iya (Shelter Association), a government association affiliated with the Ministry of Social Affairs, was established in 1992. UNICEF estimates that 95% of these children are "social orphans", meaning that they have at least one living parent who has given them up to the state. "Currently, there are 52 orphanages in Tanzania caring for about 3,000 orphans and vulnerable children. One charity named "CHOICE Cambodia" is run by ex-pats based in the capital city of Phnom Penh; it helps support extremely poor and homeless people and helps families stay together rather than have their children put into orphanages where they might get exploited. In many works of fiction (notably Oliver Twist and Annie), the administrators of orphanages are depicted as cruel monsters. "The Case of the Vanishing Orphanage | Good Intentions Are Not Enough", "China: Adopted Children May Have Been Stolen From Their Families, Holly Williams Reports – Sky News Video Player", "BBC News – Nepal comes to terms with foreign adoptions tragedy", "Bali orphanages: How tourist cash funds a racket", "Helping Orphans in Bosnia and Herzegovina", http://www.manskligarattigheter.gov.se/dynamaster/file_archive/080325/51cacb4e4318d3f2d78c62ef72787efe/Bulgarien.pdf, "One Heart Bulgaria – Non-profit Humanitarian Aid Organization", http://www.manskligarattigheter.gov.se/dynamaster/file_archive/080314/74c53f5440e23b5fa2b948c7b40eb5ca/Estland.pdf, http://www.manskligarattigheter.gov.se/dynamaster/file_archive/080325/eec1656e32f2e28fdd08acc8fa800070/Ungern.pdf, http://www.manskligarattigheter.gov.se/dynamaster/file_archive/080314/5c08d4415225dfc8695e0f535fbfe168/Litauen.pdf, http://www.mmuncii.ro/j33/images/buletin_statistic/2018/Copil_sem_I_2018.pdf, "Half a million kids survived Romania's 'slaughterhouses of souls.' 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